CHIC WALL DECOR. WALL DECOR


Chic Wall Decor. Decorating Gardens. Decorating Ideas For Small Bathroom.



Chic Wall Decor





chic wall decor






    decor
  • The furnishing and decoration of a room

  • The style of decoration of a room, building

  • interior decoration: decoration consisting of the layout and furnishings of a livable interior

  • The decoration and scenery of a stage

  • Interior design is a multi-faceted profession in which creative and technical solutions are applied within a structure to achieve a built interior environment.





    chic
  • Elegantly and stylishly fashionable

  • elegance by virtue of being fashionable

  • elegant and stylish; "chic elegance"; "a smart new dress"; "a suit of voguish cut"

  • Chic is the debut album by American R&B band Chic, released on Atlantic Records in 1977. It includes the hit singles "Dance, Dance, Dance (Yowsah, Yowsah, Yowsah)" - originally released on label Buddha Records - (US Hot 100 #6, R&B #6, US Club Play #1, UK #6) and "Everybody Dance" (US Hot 100 #





    wall
  • A side of a building or room, typically forming part of the building's structure

  • A continuous vertical brick or stone structure that encloses or divides an area of land

  • surround with a wall in order to fortify

  • anything that suggests a wall in structure or function or effect; "a wall of water"; "a wall of smoke"; "a wall of prejudice"; "negotiations ran into a brick wall"

  • Any high vertical surface or facade, esp. one that is imposing in scale

  • an architectural partition with a height and length greater than its thickness; used to divide or enclose an area or to support another structure; "the south wall had a small window"; "the walls were covered with pictures"











Little Girls Quilt




Little Girls Quilt





This is a quilt I made with fabric pictures. The backing is the paper dolls fabric and I liked it so well that I cut out the dolls, laid them on matching fabric blocks and scanned them into my computer. Then printed them out onto the regular fabric blocks and sewed them in. Easier than applique! This was an Easter giveaway for the Design Style Guide group that I belong to. The fabric used is from the "Somerset Cottage" collection by Robyn Pandolph for RJR Fabrics.











Shabby Chic Wall Decor




Shabby Chic Wall Decor





Upcycled Wall Hanging with Vintage Knobs and Mason Jar









chic wall decor







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tag: chic  wall  decor  pictures  of  christmas  table  decorations  decorating  a 

DECORATE YOUR OFFICE. DECORATE YOUR


DECORATE YOUR OFFICE. HOME DECORATING PAINTING. PURPLE RECEPTION DECOR



Decorate Your Office





decorate your office






    decorate
  • Make (something) look more attractive by adding ornament to it

  • Provide (a room or building) with a color scheme, paint, wallpaper, etc

  • make more attractive by adding ornament, colour, etc.; "Decorate the room for the party"; "beautify yourself for the special day"

  • Confer an award or medal on (a member of the armed forces)

  • deck: be beautiful to look at; "Flowers adorned the tables everywhere"

  • award a mark of honor, such as a medal, to; "He was decorated for his services in the military"





    office
  • A room, set of rooms, or building used as a place for commercial, professional, or bureaucratic work

  • A room, department, or building used to provide a particular service

  • The local center of a large business

  • place of business where professional or clerical duties are performed; "he rented an office in the new building"

  • agency: an administrative unit of government; "the Central Intelligence Agency"; "the Census Bureau"; "Office of Management and Budget"; "Tennessee Valley Authority"

  • function: the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group; "the function of a teacher"; "the government must do its part"; "play its role"











Mid Century Sundial Bookends




Mid Century Sundial Bookends





Two words: executive elegance. Whether you're decorating your office or your home library, this pair of vintage sundial bookends are the perfect touch to complete the look. Made of solid brass, with expert detailing, they measure 6.5"h and will alert all of your colleagues to your dapper sense of style. See profile for more details.











office decorations




office decorations





one of teh great things about christmas is that you can decorate your office so you don't just have to look at the same boring colour scheme all day long anymore









decorate your office







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DECORATING A BRICK WALL : BRICK WALL


DECORATING A BRICK WALL : BEACH THEMED CAKE DECORATIONS.



Decorating A Brick Wall





decorating a brick wall






    brick wall
  • A wall is a usually solid structure that defines and sometimes protects an area. Most commonly, a wall delineates a building and supports its superstructure, separates space in buildings into rooms, or protects or delineates a space in the open air.

  • Brickwork is masonry produced by a bricklayer, using bricks and mortar to build up brick structures such as walls. Brickwork is also used to finish corners, door and window openings etc. in buildings made of other materials.

  • (Brick walls) A brick is a block of ceramic material used in masonry construction, usually laid using various kinds of mortar.





    decorating
  • Make (something) look more attractive by adding ornament to it

  • (decorate) deck: be beautiful to look at; "Flowers adorned the tables everywhere"

  • (decorate) make more attractive by adding ornament, colour, etc.; "Decorate the room for the party"; "beautify yourself for the special day"

  • Confer an award or medal on (a member of the armed forces)

  • Provide (a room or building) with a color scheme, paint, wallpaper, etc

  • (decorate) award a mark of honor, such as a medal, to; "He was decorated for his services in the military"











decorating a brick wall - Wallmonkeys Peel




Wallmonkeys Peel and Stick Wall Graphic - Orange, Yellow, and Red Brick Wall, Wide View - 24"W x 18"H


Wallmonkeys Peel and Stick Wall Graphic - Orange, Yellow, and Red Brick Wall, Wide View - 24"W x 18"H



WallMonkeys wall graphics are printed on the highest quality re-positionable, self-adhesive fabric paper. Each order is printed in-house and on-demand. WallMonkeys uses premium materials & state-of-the-art production technologies. Our white fabric material is superior to vinyl decals. You can literally see and feel the difference. Our wall graphics apply in minutes and won't damage your paint or leave any mess. PLEASE double check the size of the image you are ordering prior to clicking the 'ADD TO CART' button. Our graphics are offered in a variety of sizes and prices.
WallMonkeys are intended for indoor use only.
Printed on-demand in the United States Your order will ship within 3 business days, often sooner. Some orders require the full 3 days to allow dark colors and inks to fully dry prior to shipping. Quality is worth waiting an extra day for!
Removable and will not leave a mark on your walls.
'Fotolia' trademark will be removed when printed.
Our catalog of over 10 million images is perfect for virtually any use: school projects, trade shows, teachers classrooms, colleges, nurseries, college dorms, event planners, and corporations of all size.










83% (12)





wrestling - sweet and spicy brick lane




wrestling - sweet and spicy brick lane





the walls of the sweet and spicy have been decorated with wrestling imagery for the many years ive been going there. its all part of the simple charm of this great bangladeshi caff. cheap and cheerful, not much has changed though the loos are cleaner than they were a decade or so ago.

OCT 09 STOP PRESS - bugger, theyve done the place up. still worth a visit though not quite as charming as once upon. . .











Everton in the alcove...




Everton in the alcove...





...a huge (almost 3m.) stencil by c215

With my original photo portrait of Everton (to the left), pictured at his home in front of a smaller stencil portrait of him decorating the wall of his humble shack and done by the artist during his visit to our community.

(From the recent c215 charity exhibition for CARF in Bergen, Norway.)









decorating a brick wall








decorating a brick wall




101 Brick Wall Busters






101 Brick Wall Busters is your secret weapon for getting over, around, under and through obstacles in your family history search.Your family history research is humming along just fine ? you've discovered a trove of old letters here, a census and a birth certificate there. Then something genealogists call a brick wall stops you cold: You can't find the record you need. Your great-grandmother's maiden name eludes you. You don't know where your immigrant ancestor was born.



Now you can meet those obstacles with the advice in 101 Brick Wall Busters: Solutions to Overcome Your Genealogical Challenges. This compilation of Family Tree Magazine experts' answers to readers' toughest questions offers solutions for beginning and veteran genealogists. You'll learn strategies and discover new resources for tracing missing ancestors, finding the right records, researching in the old country and more. And you can use our exclusive Records Checklist and Brick Wall Worksheet to formulate your plan of attack.










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tag: decorating  a  brick  wall  kitchen  cabinet  tops  decorations  de  noel 

DECORATING TIPS FOR BATHROOMS. DECORATING TIPS


Decorating Tips For Bathrooms. Fireplace Mantel Decorations. Wall Metal Decoration.



Decorating Tips For Bathrooms





decorating tips for bathrooms






    decorating tips
  • Comes in different sizes and used in conjunction with the decorating bag to make different designs.

  • Used to create decorations from icing. The size and shape of the opening on the tip will determine the decoration produced when icing is placed in a decorating bag and piped out through the tip.





    bathrooms
  • A room containing a bathtub or a shower and usually also a washbasin and a toilet

  • (bathroom) toilet: a room or building equipped with one or more toilets

  • A set of matching units to be fitted in such a room, esp. as sold together

  • A bathroom is a room that may have different functions depending on the culturalist context. In the most literal sense, the word bathroom means "a room with a bath".

  • A room containing a toilet

  • (bathroom) a room (as in a residence) containing a bathtub or shower and usually a washbasin and toilet











decorating tips for bathrooms - DIY: Bathroom




DIY: Bathroom Tips and Advice


DIY: Bathroom Tips and Advice



Your bathroom doesn't have to be the most neglected room in the house any longer. Learn about flooring options for your bathroom, tile repair, water damage and sealant, faucets and shower fixtures, replacing a bathroom sink, shower curtains and rods, fixing drains, installing vanities, painting the bathroom, wiring bathrooms, lighting the bathroom, do it yourself molding and maximizing bathroom space.

Your bathroom doesn't have to be the most neglected room in the house any longer. Learn about flooring options for your bathroom, tile repair, water damage and sealant, faucets and shower fixtures, replacing a bathroom sink, shower curtains and rods, fixing drains, installing vanities, painting the bathroom, wiring bathrooms, lighting the bathroom, do it yourself molding and maximizing bathroom space.










87% (9)





Game On. Ready?




Game On. Ready?





This shot was taken inside a model home. I took dozens of photos but was looking for something special to make a "shot" from. I love chess so this little set up caught my eye. When I first came upon this, the chess pieces were all over the board and many were tipped over. I took a few shots like that but decided the board should be set right and look like it was ready to play. So, I took a few moments and put the pieces in their appropriate positions and started over with the photos. I thought a b/w image would suit this due to the natural lighting coming in through the windows. During post processing, I added the soft focus and the frame and this is the result. Now that I look at this, I wish I would have made a few moves on both sides to make it look like there was a game in progress. Oh well, maybe next time.

Last weekend, my mom and I went to this model townhouse to see what a 1/2 million dollars will buy these days. This home was rediculous! Entering through the front door is the livingroom, dining room and kitchen, with floor to ceiling windows, light coming in from everywhere and decorated with exquisite taste and eloquence.

There was a stairway going down to a lower level. There was a family room, half bath, furnace room, a/c room, and the door to a 2 car garage. I noticed this door labled "elevator, please ask for assistance". I didnt think too much of that and went back up the stairs to the main level. The sales associate told me I should take my mom up to the 4th floor in the elevator. Im like, 4th floor? She said, yes, you will love it.

So, we walk over to the kitchen to another door marked elevator. We get in, and push 4. Yep, all these new townhomes come equipped with an elevator. I thought they only put elevators in homes out in Hollywood.......lol. It was a very slow ride, but eventually we get to the 4th floor. There is a bedroom and a full bath up there. This shot was taken on this floor. You can see the stairwell to the left. To the right is ANOTHER living room with a kitchenette. The only thing missing in this "kitchenette" was an oven. Straight ahead to the right of the table is a door exiting out onto a terrace. The terrace was huge! It was as big as my living room at home, maybe bigger!! There was a table and chair set out there and we sat down just to take in the "outdoor" moment. I looked at my mom and said, you know, we have seen SOOOOOO much already and we havent seen the 3rd floor yet........lol.

Eventually we head down the stairs to the 3rd floor. We find the master bedroom, master bath, a den (or another bedroom), laundry room, and a guest bath. Whew! Ive lost count on how many rooms are in this place!! How they can pack so much in one "unit". Haaaaaa! This "unit" was almost 4000 square feet. So, while I am still checking out the master bedroom, my mom went ahead through this hallway to the master bathroom. All of a sudden she yells out to me saying, you wont beleive this bathroom. Its like something from Hollywood. She was cracking up! Oh, I couldnt wait to get in there and see for myself. I walk to that side of the room to the "entrance" of the bathroom. I stopped in my tracks. Just the view from the "doorway" of the bathroom was enough. I put a picture of this below.

So ok, a half million isnt bad for such a large space but there were a TON of upgrades in this unit that most certainly raises that "base price" from 1/2 million to probably close to 700k. In fact, one of the upgrades is the finished 4th floor. Go figure. That "feature" is the best thing about this place!

Just before exiting the 3rd floor to make our way down to the main level, another sales associate noticed I had a camera and politely told me that pictures were not allowed. Ok............I said. This, AFTER I had already snapped off close to 100 pictures. After I started to make my way down the stairs and she went back to her "office", I shot about 10 more as I was walking out the front door.

No pictures? Whats up with that?

The place was beautiful. I fell in love with it. It actually is JUST what I would buy if I had a 1/2 to 3/4 of a million laying around. Real estate taxes are a mere $10k per year and association fees are $467/month, which includes outdoor window washing 2 times per year...............yeah baby, that makes it all worth it!!...lol.

I just cant imagine being able to afford something like that.

Anyway, I bought a lottery ticket last night.............2 of them.............just in case it was my lucky night........lol.

It wasnt.

And to think I could have put that $2.00 into my townhouse fund.

I would only need $449,998 more....................*sigh*

Whatever.

Chess anyone?











Texas Cowboy




Texas Cowboy





"I'm Gonna Hire a Wino to Decorate Our Home" by David Frizzell

I came crawling home last night, like many nights before:
I finally made it to my feet as she opened up the door.
And she said, "You're not gonna do this anymore."

She said: "I'm gonna' hire a wino to decorate our home,
"So you'll feel more at ease here, and you won't have to roam.
"We'll take out the dining room table, and put a bar along that wall.
"And a neon sign, to point the way, to our bathroom down the hall."

She said: "Just bring your Friday paycheck, and I'll cash them all right here.
"And I'll keep on tap - for all your friends, their favorite kinds of beer.
"And for you, I'll always keep in stock, those soft aluminum cans.
"And when you're feeling macho, you can crush them like a man."

She said: "We'll rip out all the carpet, and put sawdust on the floor.
"Serve hard boiled eggs and pretzels, and I won't cook no more.
"There'll be Monday night football, on T.V. above the bar.
"And a pay phone in the hallway, when your friends can't find their car."

She said: "You'll get friendly service, and for added atmosphere.
"I'll slip on something sexy, and I'll cut it clear to here.
"Then you can slap my bottom, every time you tell a joke.
"Just as long as you keep tipping, well, I'll laugh until you're broke."

She said: "Instead of family quarrels, we'll have a bar-room brawl,
"When the Hamm's bear say's its closing time, you won't have far to crawl.
"And when you run out of money, you'll have me to thank.
"You can sleep it off next morning, when I'm putting it in the bank."

She said: "I'm gonna' hire a wino, to decorate our home,
"So you can feel more at ease here, and you won't have to roam.
"When you and your friends get off from work, and have a powerful thirst.
"There won't be any reason, why you can't stop off here first."











decorating tips for bathrooms








decorating tips for bathrooms




Tips on a Home Makeover






For people who are improving their home, either to improve their lifestyle or are planning to sell, doing a home makeover will make their home stand out from the rest on the block. There are many inexpensive ways to do a home makeover, read all about it.

For people who are improving their home, either to improve their lifestyle or are planning to sell, doing a home makeover will make their home stand out from the rest on the block. There are many inexpensive ways to do a home makeover, read all about it.










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tag: decorating  tips  for  bathrooms  chairs  decorations  deer  antler 

DECORATIVE METAL SHELVING. DECORATIVE METAL


Decorative metal shelving. Mod decorating.



Decorative Metal Shelving





decorative metal shelving






    decorative
  • Relating to decoration

  • cosmetic: serving an esthetic rather than a useful purpose; "cosmetic fenders on cars"; "the buildings were utilitarian rather than decorative"

  • (decorativeness) an appearance that serves to decorate and make something more attractive

  • Serving to make something look more attractive; ornamental

  • (decoratively) in a decorative manner; "used decoratively at Christmas"





    shelving
  • (shelve) place on a shelf; "shelve books"

  • The action of shelving something

  • This article is about surgical anatomy. Readers interested in other usages are referred to the shelf disambiguation article.

  • Shelves collectively

  • (shelve) postpone: hold back to a later time; "let's postpone the exam"





    metal
  • Gold and silver (as tinctures in blazoning)

  • metallic element: any of several chemical elements that are usually shiny solids that conduct heat or electricity and can be formed into sheets etc.

  • metallic: containing or made of or resembling or characteristic of a metal; "a metallic compound"; "metallic luster"; "the strange metallic note of the meadow lark, suggesting the clash of vibrant blades"- Ambrose Bierce

  • A solid material that is typically hard, shiny, malleable, fusible, and ductile, with good electrical and thermal conductivity (e.g., iron, gold, silver, copper, and aluminum, and alloys such as brass and steel)

  • cover with metal

  • Broken stone for use in making roads











decorative metal shelving - Envision 84"




Envision 84" H Shelving System with Insert Panel and 4 Adjustable Shelves Shelf Finish: Cool Grey, Panel Finish: Black


Envision 84" H Shelving System with Insert Panel and 4 Adjustable Shelves Shelf Finish: Cool Grey, Panel Finish: Black



PDQ-SP1+-Cool Grey Shelf-Black Panel Shelf Finish: Cool Grey, Panel Finish: Black
Pictured Back Panel Material Not Available


Pictured with Glass Shelves
The Envision collection from Peter Pepper Products is one of the most versatile, innovative shelving and storage systems on the market today. This shelving system features 4 adjustable shelves available with 4 different styles to house just about anything you like. Now the only things hindering you are those four office walls. Creativity inspired by Peter Pepper Products. See the Brochure! Features: -Flat facing, Natural Anodized Aluminum elliptical uprights -Mounts to wall with 4'' standoffs -Shelves available in Cool Grey or Natural Maple laminate, Glass, or Acrylic styles -Glass shelf has a flat polished edge -Acrylic literature shelf mounts at 30° angle -Insert panel available in Cool Grey, Black, or Natural Maple Specifications: -Uprights: 2.875'' W x 1.125'' D -Laminate Shelves: RTF rigid thermafoil over 1'' MDF -Glass Shelf: 0.375'' Thick -Acrylic Literature Shelf: 30° angle, 2'' H retainer -Shelves adjustable at 0.75'' increments -Glass and Laminate Shelf Capacity: 50 lbs per shelf, uniformly distributed static load -Shelf Dimensions: 39.5'' W x 13'' D -Overall Dimensions: 84'' H x 42'' W x 19'' D Installation Instructions










84% (13)





glass




glass





A glass is an amorphous (non-crystalline) solid material. Glasses are typically brittle, and often optically transparent. Glass is commonly used for windows, bottles, modern hard drives and eyewear; examples of glassy materials include soda-lime glass, borosilicate glass, acrylic glass, sugar glass, Muscovy-glass, and aluminium oxynitride. The term glass developed in the late Roman Empire. It was in the Roman glassmaking center at Trier, now in modern Germany, that the late-Latin term glesum originated, probably from a Germanic word for a transparent, lustrous substance.

Strictly speaking, a glass is defined as an inorganic product of fusion which has been cooled through its glass transition to the solid state without crystallising. Many glasses contain silica as their main component and glass former. The term "glass" is, however, often extended to all amorphous solids (and melts that easily form amorphous solids), including plastics, resins, or other silica-free amorphous solids. In addition, besides traditional melting techniques, any other means of preparation are considered, such as ion implantation, and the sol-gel method. Commonly, glass science and physics deal only with inorganic amorphous solids, while plastics and similar organics are covered by polymer science, biology and further scientific disciplines.

Glass plays an essential role in science and industry. The optical and physical properties of glass make it suitable for applications such as flat glass, container glass, optics and optoelectronics material, laboratory equipment, thermal insulator (glass wool), reinforcement fiber (glass-reinforced plastic, glass fiber reinforced concrete), and art.

History

The history of creating glass can be traced back to 3500 BCE in Mesopotamia.


Glass production

Glass ingredients

Pure silica (SiO2) has a "glass melting point"— at a viscosity of 10 Pa·s (100 P)— of over 2300 °C (4200 °F). While pure silica can be made into glass for special applications (see fused quartz), other substances are added to common glass to simplify processing. One is sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), which lowers the melting point to about 1500 °C (2700 °F) in soda-lime glass; "soda" refers to the original source of sodium carbonate in the soda ash obtained from certain plants. However, the soda makes the glass water soluble, which is usually undesirable, so lime (calcium oxide (CaO), generally obtained from limestone), some magnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminium oxide (Al2O3) are added to provide for a better chemical durability. The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74% silica by weight and is called a soda-lime glass.[8] Soda-lime glasses account for about 90% of manufactured glass.

As well as soda and lime, most common glass has other ingredients added to change its properties. Lead glass or flint glass, is more 'brilliant' because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more "sparkles", while boron may be added to change the thermal and electrical properties, as in Pyrex. Adding barium also increases the refractive index. Thorium oxide gives glass a high refractive index and low dispersion and was formerly used in producing high-quality lenses, but due to its radioactivity has been replaced by lanthanum oxide in modern eye glasses. Large amounts of iron are used in glass that absorbs infrared energy, such as heat absorbing filters for movie projectors, while cerium(IV) oxide can be used for glass that absorbs UV wavelengths.

Another common glass ingredient is "cullet" (recycled glass). The recycled glass saves on raw materials and energy. However, impurities in the cullet can lead to product and equipment failure.

Finally, fining agents such as sodium sulfate, sodium chloride, or antimony oxide are added to reduce the bubble content in the glass.[8] Glass batch calculation is the method by which the correct raw material mixture is determined to achieve the desired glass composition.

Composition and properties
There are three classes of components for oxide glasses: network formers, intermediates, and modifiers. The network formers (silicon, boron, germanium) form a highly crosslinked network of chemical bonds. The intermediates (titanium, aluminium, zirconium, beryllium, magnesium, zinc) can act as both network formers and modifiers, according to the glass composition. The modifiers (calcium, lead, lithium, sodium, potassium) alter the network structure; they are usually present as ions, compensated by nearby non-bridging oxygen atoms, bound by one covalent bond to the glass network and holding one negative charge to compensate for the positive ion nearby. Some elements can play multiple roles; e.g. lead can act both as a network former (Pb4+ replacing Si4+), or as a modifier.

The presence of non-bridging oxygens lowers the relative number of strong bonds in the material and disrupts the network, decreasing the viscosity of the melt and lowering the melting tempe











glass




glass





A glass is an amorphous (non-crystalline) solid material. Glasses are typically brittle, and often optically transparent. Glass is commonly used for windows, bottles, modern hard drives and eyewear; examples of glassy materials include soda-lime glass, borosilicate glass, acrylic glass, sugar glass, Muscovy-glass, and aluminium oxynitride. The term glass developed in the late Roman Empire. It was in the Roman glassmaking center at Trier, now in modern Germany, that the late-Latin term glesum originated, probably from a Germanic word for a transparent, lustrous substance.

Strictly speaking, a glass is defined as an inorganic product of fusion which has been cooled through its glass transition to the solid state without crystallising. Many glasses contain silica as their main component and glass former. The term "glass" is, however, often extended to all amorphous solids (and melts that easily form amorphous solids), including plastics, resins, or other silica-free amorphous solids. In addition, besides traditional melting techniques, any other means of preparation are considered, such as ion implantation, and the sol-gel method. Commonly, glass science and physics deal only with inorganic amorphous solids, while plastics and similar organics are covered by polymer science, biology and further scientific disciplines.

Glass plays an essential role in science and industry. The optical and physical properties of glass make it suitable for applications such as flat glass, container glass, optics and optoelectronics material, laboratory equipment, thermal insulator (glass wool), reinforcement fiber (glass-reinforced plastic, glass fiber reinforced concrete), and art.

History

The history of creating glass can be traced back to 3500 BCE in Mesopotamia.


Glass production

Glass ingredients

Pure silica (SiO2) has a "glass melting point"— at a viscosity of 10 Pa·s (100 P)— of over 2300 °C (4200 °F). While pure silica can be made into glass for special applications (see fused quartz), other substances are added to common glass to simplify processing. One is sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), which lowers the melting point to about 1500 °C (2700 °F) in soda-lime glass; "soda" refers to the original source of sodium carbonate in the soda ash obtained from certain plants. However, the soda makes the glass water soluble, which is usually undesirable, so lime (calcium oxide (CaO), generally obtained from limestone), some magnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminium oxide (Al2O3) are added to provide for a better chemical durability. The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74% silica by weight and is called a soda-lime glass.[8] Soda-lime glasses account for about 90% of manufactured glass.

As well as soda and lime, most common glass has other ingredients added to change its properties. Lead glass or flint glass, is more 'brilliant' because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more "sparkles", while boron may be added to change the thermal and electrical properties, as in Pyrex. Adding barium also increases the refractive index. Thorium oxide gives glass a high refractive index and low dispersion and was formerly used in producing high-quality lenses, but due to its radioactivity has been replaced by lanthanum oxide in modern eye glasses. Large amounts of iron are used in glass that absorbs infrared energy, such as heat absorbing filters for movie projectors, while cerium(IV) oxide can be used for glass that absorbs UV wavelengths.

Another common glass ingredient is "cullet" (recycled glass). The recycled glass saves on raw materials and energy. However, impurities in the cullet can lead to product and equipment failure.

Finally, fining agents such as sodium sulfate, sodium chloride, or antimony oxide are added to reduce the bubble content in the glass.[8] Glass batch calculation is the method by which the correct raw material mixture is determined to achieve the desired glass composition.

Composition and properties
There are three classes of components for oxide glasses: network formers, intermediates, and modifiers. The network formers (silicon, boron, germanium) form a highly crosslinked network of chemical bonds. The intermediates (titanium, aluminium, zirconium, beryllium, magnesium, zinc) can act as both network formers and modifiers, according to the glass composition. The modifiers (calcium, lead, lithium, sodium, potassium) alter the network structure; they are usually present as ions, compensated by nearby non-bridging oxygen atoms, bound by one covalent bond to the glass network and holding one negative charge to compensate for the positive ion nearby. Some elements can play multiple roles; e.g. lead can act both as a network former (Pb4+ replacing Si4+), or as a modifier.

The presence of non-bridging oxygens lowers the relative number of strong bonds in the material and disrupts the network, decreasing the viscosity of the melt and lowering the melting temp









decorative metal shelving







Related topics:

decorative vinyl wall decals

decorating walls with paint

rod iron decor

english garden decor

cherry blossom room decor

beach party decoration ideas

decorating ranch style

beach theme party decorations

college apartments decorating



tag: decorative  metal  shelving  door  decorating  ideas  for  christmas  home  decorations